240v to 110v step down transformer theory, construction and working principle
240v to 110v step down transformer is the most common transformer used in regions where 110v is the distribution voltage in common. Electronic products are manufactured from various part of world. They have different distribution voltage levels used in their country. Common voltages are 240v and 110v A.C. voltages.
For an example let’s say a television is manufactured to work on input supply 110v in default. This product has to be used to a country where common distribution voltage is 220v.
Then the user couldn’t plug this television directly to his 240v supply at his home. If he did that he will end up with a burn inside the television. For this purpose we need a 240v to 110v step down transformer to convert voltage level to required level.
Some electronic product has in built step down transformer to fulfill this requirement. The consumer should switch between 240v and 110v as per the country standard voltage.
Not only limited to 240v to 110v voltage conversion. There are requirements for step down transformer 220v to 110v, and step down transformer 240v to 120v (step down transformer 240 to 120) in different product ranges. Further, people search for 277v to 120v step down transformer and many more specific step down transformer products.
Whatever the voltage requirement, almost all products are designed to support ranges of input voltage which varies within a considerable range.
Structure of 220v to 110v step down transformer
Structure of 220v to 110v step down transformer is as following,
- It has primary and secondary winding.
Primary winding has number of turns two times the secondary winding number of turns. Increasing the number of turns will increase induced emf on cores. But, the turns ration should be 2:1.
- Primary and secondary windings are wound on ferromagnetic core.
Coil terminals are taken out such that they can input and output power.
- Primary winding is supplied to the source voltage.
An A.C. 220v will be applied to the primary winding terminals. Turn ration is 2:1 for 220 to 110 step down transformer. So output voltage would be 110v A.C.
- Secondary winding is connected to load.
This is where load is connected which require 110v.
Applications of 220v to 110v step down transformer
- Electrical appliances
Radio, Television, Washing machine, Refrigerators, etc…
- There are many applications of different voltage range of step down transformers.
Losses in Transformer
Ideally product of input voltage and current (Input power) should be equal to output current and voltage. But, practically output power is lesser than input power. This is because there are some losses in transformer. Following are the losses in transformer,
- Hysteresis Losses
- Stray Losses
- Iron Losses
- Copper Loss Or Ohmic Losses
- Eddy Current Losses
- Dielectric Losses
We will explain these in another tutorial. For learn more about these see our blog.